The list of publications below is not a complete list of IRES-oriented literature. Instead, it is a list of articles which were at least partially processed into IRESite records or referenced from records contained therein.
* Ahmed R., Duncan R. F. (2004) Translational regulation of Hsp90 mRNA. AUG-proximal 5'-untranslated region elements essential for preferential heat shock translation. J. Biol. Chem. 279(48):49919-49930
* Ali N, Pruijn GJ, Kenan DJ, Keene JD, Siddiqui A (2000) Human La antigen is required for the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. J. Biol. Chem. 36(275):27531-27540
* Altmann M, Trachsel H, Vonlanthen M, Vergé V (2004) Answer to 'Reevaluation of the conclusion that IRES-activity reported within the 5' leader of the TIF4631 gene is due to promoter activity.'. RNA. 10(6):898
* Bailey J. M., Tapprich W. E. (2007) Structure of the 5' nontranslated region of the coxsackievirus b3 genome: Chemical modification and comparative sequence analysis. J. Virol. 81(2):650-668
* Baird S. D., Lewis S. M., Turcotte M., Holcik M. (2007) A search for structurally similar cellular internal ribosome entry sites. Nucleic. Acids. Res. 35(14):4664-4677
* Bakhshesh M., Groppelli E., Willcocks M. M., Royall E., Belsham G. J., Roberts L. O. (2008) The picornavirus avian encephalomyelitis virus possesses a hepatitis C virus-like internal ribosome entry site element. J. Virol. 82(4):1993-2003
* Bandyopadhyay PK, Wang C, Lipton HL (1992) Cap-independent translation by the 5' untranslated region of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J. Virol. 11(66):6249-6256
* Baranick B. T., Lemp N. A., Nagashima J., Hiraoka K., Kasahara N., Logg C. R. (2008) Splicing mediates the activity of four putative cellular internal ribosome entry sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(12):4733-4738
* Baril M., Brakier-Gingras L. (2005) Translation of the F protein of hepatitis C virus is initiated at a non-AUG codon in a +1 reading frame relative to the polyprotein. Nucleic Acids Res. 33(5):1474-1486
* Barría MI, González A, Vera-Otarola J, León U, Vollrath V, Marsac D, Monasterio O, Pérez-Acle T, Soza A, López-Lastra M (2009) Analysis of natural variants of the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site reveals that primary sequence plays a key role in cap-independent translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 37(3):957-971
* Basame S., Wai-lun Li P., Howard G., Branciforte D., Keller D., Martin S. L. (2006) Spatial assembly and RNA binding stoichiometry of a LINE-1 protein essential for retrotransposition. J. Mol. Biol. 357(2):351-357
* Bee T, Ashley EL, Bickley SR, Jarratt A, Li PS, Sloane-Stanley J, Göttgens B, de Bruijn MF (2009) The mouse Runx1 +23 hematopoietic stem cell enhancer confers hematopoietic specificity to both Runx1 promoters. Blood. 113(21):5121-5124
* Bergamini G., Preiss T., Hentze M. W. (2000) Picornavirus IRESes and the poly(A) tail jointly promote cap-independent translation in a mammalian cell-free system. RNA. 6(12):1781-1790
* Berkhout B. (1996) Structure and function of the human immunodeficiency virus leader RNA. Prog. Nucleic. Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 54:1-34
* Berkhout B., Jeang K. T. (1989) trans activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is sequence specific for both the single-stranded bulge and loop of the trans-acting-responsive hairpin: a quantitative analysis. J. Virol. 63(12):5501-5504
* Berlioz C., Torrent C., Darlix J. L. (1995) An internal ribosomal entry signal in the rat VL30 region of the Harvey murine sarcoma virus leader and its use in dicistronic retroviral vectors. J. Virol. 69(10):6400-6407
* Bernstein J., Sella O., Le S. Y., Elroy-Stein O. (1997) PDGF2/c-sis mRNA leader contains a differentiation-linked internal ribosomal entry site (D-IRES). J. Biol. Chem. 272(14):9356-9362
* Bert AG, Grépin R, Vadas MA, Goodall GJ (2006) Assessing IRES activity in the HIF-1alpha and other cellular 5' UTRs. RNA. 12(6):1074-1083
* Bhattacharyya S, Das S (2005) Mapping of secondary structure of the spacer region within the 5'-untranslated region of the coxsackievirus B3 RNA: possible role of an apical GAGA loop in binding La protein and influencing internal initiation of translation. Virus Res. 108(1-2):89-100
* Blyn LB, Swiderek KM, Richards O, Stahl DC, Semler BL, Ehrenfeld E (1996) Poly(rC) binding protein 2 binds to stem-loop IV of the poliovirus RNA 5' noncoding region: identification by automated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20):11115-11120
* Blyn LB, Towner JS, Semler BL, Ehrenfeld E (1997) Requirement of poly(rC) binding protein 2 for translation of poliovirus RNA. J. Virol. 71(8):6243-6246
* Bochkov Y. A., Palmenberg A. C. (2006) Translational efficiency of EMCV IRES in bicistronic vectors is dependent upon IRES sequence and gene location. Biotechniques. 41(3):283-284, 286, 288, 290
* Bond B. J., Davidson N. (1986) The Drosophila melanogaster actin 5C gene uses two transcription initiation sites and three polyadenylation sites to express multiple mRNA species. Mol. Cell. Biol. 6(6):2080-2088
* Borman A. M., Kean K. M. (1997) Intact eukaryotic initiation factor 4G is required for hepatitis A virus internal initiation of translation. Virology. 237(1):129-136
* Borman A. M., Le Mercier P., Girard M., Kean K. M. (1997) Comparison of picornaviral IRES-driven internal initiation of translation in cultured cells of different origins. Nucleic Acids Res. 25(5):925-932
* Borman A., Jackson R. J. (1992) Initiation of translation of human rhinovirus RNA: mapping the internal ribosome entry site. Virology. 188(2):685-696
* Boussadia O., Niepmann M., Creancier L., Prats A. C., Dautry F., Jacquemin-Sablon H. (2003) Unr is required in vivo for efficient initiation of translation from the internal ribosome entry sites of both rhinovirus and poliovirus. J. Virol. 77(6):3353-3359
* Brasey A., Lopez-Lastra M., Ohlmann T., Beerens N., Berkhout B., Darlix J. L., Sonenberg N. (2003) The leader of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic RNA harbors an internal ribosome entry segment that is active during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. J. Virol. 77(7):3939-3949
* Brown E. A., Day S. P., Jansen R. W., Lemon S. M. (1991) The 5' nontranslated region of hepatitis A virus RNA: secondary structure and elements required for translation in vitro. J. Virol. 65(11):5828-5838
* Brown E. A., Zajac A. J., Lemon S. M. (1994) In vitro characterization of an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) present within the 5' nontranslated region of hepatitis A virus RNA: comparison with the IRES of encephalomyocarditis virus. J. Virol. 68(2):1066-1074
* Brown EA, Zhang H, Ping LH, Lemon SM (1992) Secondary structure of the 5' nontranslated regions of hepatitis C virus and pestivirus genomic RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 19(20):5041-5045
* Buchholz UJ, Finke S, Conzelmann KK (1999) Generation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) from cDNA: BRSV NS2 is not essential for virus replication in tissue culture, and the human RSV leader region acts as a functional BRSV genome promoter. J. Virol. 1(73):251-259
* Buratti E, Tisminetzky S, Zotti M, Baralle FE (1998) Functional analysis of the interaction between HCV 5'UTR and putative subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3. Nucleic Acids Res. 26(13):3179-3187
* Byrd M. P., Zamora M., Lloyd R. E. (2005) Translation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI) proceeds from multiple mRNAs containing a novel cap-dependent internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is active during poliovirus infection. J. Biol. Chem. 280(19):18610-18622
* Byrd M. P., Zamora M., Lloyd R. E. (2002) Generation of multiple isoforms of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GI by use of alternate translation initiation codons. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22(13):4499-4511
* Cammas A., Pileur F., Bonnal S., Lewis S. M., Leveque N., Holcik M., Vagner S. (2007) Cytoplasmic relocalization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 controls translation initiation of specific mRNAs. Mol. Biol. Cell. 18(12):5048-5059
* Candeias MM, Powell DJ, Roubalova E, Apcher S, Bourougaa K, Vojtesek B, Bruzzoni-Giovanelli H, Fåhraeus R (2006) Expression of p53 and p53/47 are controlled by alternative mechanisms of messenger RNA translation initiation. Oncogene. 52(25):6936-6947
* Cevallos R. C., Sarnow P. (2005) Factor-independent assembly of elongation-competent ribosomes by an internal ribosome entry site located in an RNA virus that infects penaeid shrimp. J. Virol. 79(2):677-683
* Chappell S. A., Edelman G. M., Mauro V. P. (2000) A 9-nt segment of a cellular mRNA can function as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and when present in linked multiple copies greatly enhances IRES activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97(4):1536-1541
* Chappell S. A., LeQuesne J. P., Paulin F. E., deSchoolmeester M. L., Stoneley M., Soutar R. L., Ralston S. H., Helfrich M. H., Willis A. E. (2000) A mutation in the c-myc-IRES leads to enhanced internal ribosome entry in multiple myeloma: a novel mechanism of oncogene de-regulation. Oncogene. 19(38):4437-4440
* Chappell S. A., Mauro V. P. (2003) The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) contained within the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (Rbm3) mRNA is composed of functionally distinct elements. J. Biol. Chem. 278(36):33793-33800
* Chappell S. A., Owens G. C., Mauro V. P. (2001) A 5' Leader of Rbm3, a Cold Stress-induced mRNA, Mediates Internal Initiation of Translation with Increased Efficiency under Conditions of Mild Hypothermia. J. Biol. Chem. 276(40):36917-36922
* Chen WS, Chang YC, Chen YJ, Chen YJ, Teng CY, Wang CH, Wu TY (2009) Development of a prokaryotic-like polycistronic baculovirus expression vector by the linkage of two internal ribosome entry sites. J. Virol. Methods. 159(2):152-159
* Cherry S, Doukas T, Armknecht S, Whelan S, Wang H, Sarnow P, Perrimon N (2005) Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a specific sensitivity of IRES-containing RNA viruses to host translation inhibition. Genes Dev. 19(4):445-452
* Chiang P. W., Carpenter L. E., Hagerman P. J. (2001) The 5'-untranslated region of the FMR1 message facilitates translation by internal ribosome entry. J. Biol. Chem. 276(41):37916-37921
* Chon S. K., Perez D. R., Donis R. O. (1998) Genetic analysis of the internal ribosome entry segment of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Virology. 251(2):370-382
* Clever J., Sassetti C., Parslow T. G. (1995) RNA secondary structure and binding sites for gag gene products in the 5' packaging signal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Virol. 69(4):2101-2109
* Cohen J. I., Ticehurst J. R., Purcell R. H., Buckler-White A., Baroudy B. M. (1987) Complete nucleotide sequence of wild-type hepatitis A virus: comparison with different strains of hepatitis A virus and other picornaviruses. J. Virol. 61(1):50-59
* Coldwell M. J., deSchoolmeester M. L., Fraser G. A., Pickering B. M., Packham G., Willis A. E. (2001) The p36 isoform of BAG-1 is translated by internal ribosome entry following heat shock. Oncogene. 20(30):4095-4100
* Coldwell M. J., Mitchell S. A., Stoneley M., MacFarlane M., Willis A. E. (2000) Initiation of Apaf-1 translation by internal ribosome entry. Oncogene. 19(7):899-905
* Collier A. J., Tang S., Elliott R. M. (1998) Translation efficiencies of the 5' untranslated region from representatives of the six major genotypes of hepatitis C virus using a novel bicistronic reporter assay system. J. Gen. Virol. 79(Pt 10):2359-2366
* Collier AJ, Tang S, Elliott RM (1998) Translation efficiencies of the 5' untranslated region from representatives of the six major genotypes of hepatitis C virus using a novel bicistronic reporter assay system. J. Gen. Virol. 79(10):2359-2366
* Conte C., Dastugue B., Vaury C. (2002) Coupling of enhancer and insulator properties identified in two retrotransposons modulates their mutagenic impact on nearby genes. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22(6):1767-1777
* Cordey S, Roux L (2007) Further characterization of a paramyxovirus transcription initiation signal: search for required nucleotides upstream and importance of the N phase context. J. Gen. Virol. 5(88):1555-1564
* Cornelis S., Bruynooghe Y., Denecker G., Van Huffel S., Tinton S., Beyaert R. (2000) Identification and characterization of a novel cell cycle-regulated internal ribosome entry site. Mol. Cell. 5(4):597-605
* Cornelis S., Tinton S. A., Schepens B., Bruynooghe Y., Beyaert R. (2005) UNR translation can be driven by an IRES element that is negatively regulated by polypyrimidine tract binding protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 33(10):3095-3108
* Craig AW, Svitkin YV, Lee HS, Belsham GJ, Sonenberg N (1997) The La autoantigen contains a dimerization domain that is essential for enhancing translation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1(17):163-169
* Creancier L., Mercier P., Prats A. C., Morello D. (2001) c-myc Internal ribosome entry site activity is developmentally controlled and subjected to a strong translational repression in adult transgenic mice. Mol. Cell. Biol. 21(5):1833-1840
* Czibener C, Alvarez D, Scodeller E, Gamarnik AV (2005) Characterization of internal ribosomal entry sites of Triatoma virus. J. Gen. Virol. 86(8):2275-2280
* Czibener C, La Torre JL, Muscio OA, Ugalde RA, Scodeller EA (2000) Nucleotide sequence analysis of Triatoma virus shows that it is a member of a novel group of insect RNA viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 81(4):1149-1154
* Damgaard CK, Dyhr-Mikkelsen H, Kjems J (1998) Mapping the RNA binding sites for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gag and NC proteins within the complete HIV-1 and -2 untranslated leader regions. Nucleic Acids Res. 16(26):3667-3676
* Daniels R, Sadowicz D, Hebert DN (2007) A very late viral protein triggers the lytic release of SV40. PLoS Pathog. 7(3):e98
* de Miranda JR, Drebot M, Tyler S, Shen M, Cameron CE, Stoltz DB, Camazine SM (2004) Complete nucleotide sequence of Kashmir bee virus and comparison with acute bee paralysis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 85(Pt 8):2263-2270
* De Pietri Tonelli D., Mihailovich M., Schnurbus R., Pesole G., Grohovaz F., Zacchetti D. (2003) Translational control of Scamper expression via a cell-specific internal ribosome entry site. Nucleic Acids Res. 31(10):2508-2513
* De Tomassi A., Pizzuti M., Graziani R., Sbardellati A., Altamura S., Paonessa G., Traboni C. (2002) Cell clones selected from the Huh7 human hepatoma cell line support efficient replication of a subgenomic GB virus B replicon. J. Virol. 76(15):7736-7746
* De Tomassi A., Pizzuti M., Traboni C. (2003) Hep3B human hepatoma cells support replication of the wild-type and a 5'-end deletion mutant GB virus B replicon. J. Virol. 77(22):11875-11881
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* Dinkova T. D., Zepeda H., Martinez-Salas E., Martinez L. M., Nieto-Sotelo J., de Jimenez E. S. (2005) Cap-independent translation of maize Hsp101. Plant J. 41(5):722-731
* Dirks W., Wirth M., Hauser H. (1993) Dicistronic transcription units for gene expression in mammalian cells. Gene. 128(2):247-249
* Dmitriev S. E., Andreev D. E., Terenin I. M., Olovnikov I. A., Prassolov V. S., Merrick W. C., Shatsky I. N. (2007) Efficient translation initiation directed by the 900-nucleotide-long and GC-rich 5' untranslated region of the human retrotransposon LINE-1 mRNA is strictly cap dependent rather than internal ribosome entry site mediated. Mol. Cell. Biol. 27(13):4685-4697
* Domier L. L., McCoppin N. K., D'Arcy C. J. (2000) Sequence requirements for translation initiation of Rhopalosiphum padi virus ORF2. Virology. 268(2):264-271
* Dorokhov YL, Skulachev MV, Ivanov PA, Zvereva SD, Tjulkina LG, Merits A, Gleba YY, Hohn T, Atabekov JG (2002) Polypurine (A)-rich sequences promote cross-kingdom conservation of internal ribosome entry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 8(99):5301-5306
* Dorokhov YuL, Ivanov PA, Novikov VK, Agranovsky AA, Morozov SYu, Efimov VA, Casper R, Atabekov JG (1994) Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a tobamovirus infecting cruciferae plants. FEBS Lett. 1(350):5-8
* Duke G. M., Hoffman M. A., Palmenberg A. C. (1992) Sequence and structural elements that contribute to efficient encephalomyocarditis virus RNA translation. J. Virol. 66(3):1602-1609
* Dumas E., Staedel C., Colombat M., Reigadas S., Chabas S., Astier-Gin T., Cahour A., Litvak S., Ventura M. (2003) A promoter activity is present in the DNA sequence corresponding to the hepatitis C virus 5' UTR. Nucleic. Acids. Res. 31(4):1275-1281
* Dyer J. R., Michel S., Lee W., Castellucci V. F., Wayne N. L., Sossin W. S. (2003) An activity-dependent switch to cap-independent translation triggered by eIF4E dephosphorylation. Nat. Neurosci. 6(3):219-220
* Evans J. R., Mitchell S. A., Spriggs K. A., Ostrowski J., Bomsztyk K., Ostarek D., Willis A. E. (2003) Members of the poly (rC) binding protein family stimulate the activity of the c-myc internal ribosome entry segment in vitro and in vivo. Oncogene. 22(39):8012-8020
* Fen Z., Daniel T. O. (1991) 5' untranslated sequences determine degradative pathway for alternate PDGF B/c-sis mRNA's. Oncogene. 6(6):953-959
* Fernandez J., Lopez A. B., Wang C., Mishra R., Zhou L., Yaman I., Snider M. D., Hatzoglou M. (2003) Transcriptional control of the arginine/lysine transporter, cat-1, by physiological stress. J. Biol. Chem. 278(50):50000-50009
* Fernandez J., Yaman I., Merrick W. C., Koromilas A., Wek R. C., Sood R., Hensold J., Hatzoglou M. (2002) Regulation of internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation by eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha phosphorylation and translation of a small upstream open reading frame. J. Biol. Chem. 277(3):2050-2058
* Fernandez J., Yaman I., Mishra R., Merrick W. C., Snider M. D., Lamers W. H., Hatzoglou M. (2001) Internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of a mammalian mRNA is regulated by amino acid availability. J. Biol. Chem. 276(15):12285-12291
* Fernandez-Miragall O., Martinez-Salas E. (2003) Structural organization of a viral IRES depends on the integrity of the GNRA motif. RNA. 9(11):1333-1344
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* Fletcher S. P., Ali I. K., Kaminski A., Digard P., Jackson R. J. (2002) The influence of viral coding sequences on pestivirus IRES activity reveals further parallels with translation initiation in prokaryotes. RNA. 8(12):1558-1571
* Fletcher S. P., Jackson R. J. (2002) Pestivirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) structure and function: elements in the 5' untranslated region important for IRES function. J. Virol. 76(10):5024-5033
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* Gabus C., Ivanyi-Nagy R., Depollier J., Bucheton A., Pelisson A., Darlix J. L. (2006) Characterization of a nucleocapsid-like region and of two distinct primer tRNALys,2 binding sites in the endogenous retrovirus Gypsy. Nucleic. Acids. Res. 34(20):5764-5777
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* Han B., Dong Z., Zhang J. T. (2003) Tight control of platelet-derived growth factor B/c-sis expression by interplay between the 5'-untranslated region sequence and the major upstream promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 278(47):46983-46993
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* Hatakeyama Y., Shibuya N., Nishiyama T., Nakashima N. (2004) Structural variant of the intergenic internal ribosome entry site elements in dicistroviruses and computational search for their counterparts. RNA. 10(5):779-786
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* Henis-Korenblit S., Shani G., Sines T., Marash L., Shohat G., Kimchi A. (2002) The caspase-cleaved DAP5 protein supports internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of death proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99(8):5400-5405
* Henis-Korenblit S., Strumpf N. L., Goldstaub D., Kimchi A. (2000) A novel form of DAP5 protein accumulates in apoptotic cells as a result of caspase cleavage and internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(2):496-506
* Hennecke M., Kwissa M., Metzger K., Oumard A., Kroger A., Schirmbeck R., Reimann J., Hauser H. (2001) Composition and arrangement of genes define the strength of IRES-driven translation in bicistronic mRNAs. Nucleic. Acids Res. 29(16):3327-3334
* Hernandez G., Vazquez-Pianzola P., Sierra J. M., Rivera-Pomar R. (2004) Internal ribosome entry site drives cap-independent translation of reaper and heat shock protein 70 mRNAs in Drosophila embryos. RNA. 10(11):1783-1797
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* Hinton T. M., Crabb B. S. (2001) The novel picornavirus Equine rhinitis B virus contains a strong type II internal ribosomal entry site which functions similarly to that of Encephalomyocarditis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 82(Pt 9):2257-2269
* Hinton T. M., Li F., Crabb B. S. (2000) Internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation initiation in equine rhinitis A virus: similarities to and differences from that of foot-and-mouth disease virus. J. Virol. 74(24):11708-11716
* Hinton T. M., Ross-Smith N., Warner S., Belsham G. J., Crabb B. S. (2002) Conservation of L and 3C proteinase activities across distantly related aphthoviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 83(Pt 12):3111-3121
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